Tuhfatul Atfaal [5]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

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في المِثْلَيْنِ وَالمُتَقَارِبَيْنِ وَالمُتَجَانِسَيْنِ

About mithlayni [1], mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni

إِنْ فِي الصِّفَاتِ وَالمَخَـارِجِ اتَّفَـقْ ** حَرْفَـانِ فَالْمِثْـلاَنِ فِيهِمَـا أَحَـقْ

When two letters agree in sifaat (attribute) and makhaarij (places of articulation) then it is more befitting that they be (called) mithlaan (equivalent)

وَإِنْ يَكُونَـا مَخْـرَجًـا تَقَـارَبَـا ** وَفِـي الصِّفَـاتِ اخْتَلَفَـا يُلَقَّـبَـا

And if two of them are close in makhaarij (places of articulation) and differ in sifaat (attributes) then they are called:

مُتَقَارِبَـيْـنِ أَوْ يَكُونَـا اتَّـفَـقَـا ** فِي مَخْـرَجٍ دُونَ الصِّفَـاتِ حُقِّقَـا

Mutaqaaribayn (adjacent) or the two of them agree in makhaarij (places of articulation) but not in attribute, then they are comfirmed (as being) called:

بِالْمُتَجَانِسَـيْـنِ ثُـمَّ إِنْ سَـكَـنْ ** أَوَّلُ كُــلٍّ فَالصَّغِـيـرَ سَمِّـيَـنْ

Mutajaanisayn (homogenous). Then if the first of each (of the above mentioned groups) is unvowelled then call it minor (idghaam).

أَوْ حُرِّكَ الحَرْفَانِ فِي كُـلٍّ فَقُـلْ ** كُـلٌّ كَبِيـرٌ وافْهَمَـنْـهُ بِالْمُـثُـلْ

Or the two letters are vowelled in each (of the three groups), then say all (of them) are major (idghaam) and understand it with examples.

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[1] It is when the same letter comes after each other and it is of three types; Mithlayni sakheer (minor): This is when the first letter is saakin (has sukoon) and the second letter is mutaharrik (has a vowel). Mithlayni kabeer (major): This is when both letters are mutaharrik. Mithlayni mutlaq (absolute): This is when the first letter is mutaharrik and the second letter is saakin.

The mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni also divide into three types like the mithlayni.

 

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So we strive

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

Life is never easy but it is how you go about it that makes all the difference. So Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) has given us the key to success. In a characteristic that is scarce to find except with those who truly strive for the sake of Allaah. 

And seek help in patience and prayer and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for the true, submissive believers.

[Al-Baqarah: 45]

Perhaps by the mercy of Allaah we too shall be amongst the saabireen, our ranking raised due to our perservence and humility. So we strive…and supplicate…in hope of…Patience.

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

When Jibreel (alayhi salaam) and those with him came to Ibraheem (alayhi salaam) they said:

إِنَّا مُهْلِكُو أَهْلِ هَـذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ

Verily, we are going to destroy the people of this town…

[Al-Ankaboot:31]

 

He said to them: “Would you destroy a town that has 300 believers in it?”
 
They said: “No.”
He then said: “Will you destroy a town that has 200 believers in it?”

They said: “No.”

He said: “Will you destroy a town that has 40 believers in it?”

They said: “No.”

He then said: “30”

They still replied: “No.”

This continued until he said: “5”

They said: “No.

Then he said: “What do you think if there is 1 believer in the town, would you destroy it?”

They said, “No.”

With this, Ibraheem said: Indeed Luut is in it (the town).

They said: “We know better who is there. We will verily, save him and his family except his wife.”

Therefore, Ibraheem remained silent and his soul was at rest. And Allaah exalted be he said:

إِنَّ إِبْرَهِيمَ لَحَلِيمٌ أَوَّاهٌ مُّنِيبٌ
…Verily, Ibraheem was without a doubt, Haleem, Awwah, Muneeb.
[Hood:74]

 

 And concerning this, Imaam Sa’dee states in his tafseer; Haleem, meaning he had beautiful manners and did not anger when the ignorant behaved ignorantly. Awwah, meaning he always humbled himself to Allaah and Muneeb, meaning he always returned to Allaah with his knowledge and love for Him. And this is why he debated (with the angels) on behalf of those whom Allaah decreed to be destroyed.

Indeed this is why Ibraheem (alayhi salaam) is the most noble of all creation after the prophet (sallaallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam), for he was outstanding in character and in worship.

To free the heart

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

Ibn Taymiyyah said: Zuhd is to leave alone those things which will not benefit you in the next life.

Sufyaan Ath-Thawri said: Zuhd is to have limited amount of expectations: it does not mean eating poor or inadequate foods as many think, or wearing a cheap gown or cloak.

Ibn Ja’laal said: Zuhd is to know that this life is a temporary one that will pass away; it should not be magnified in ones heart, nor should much focus be placed on it. Rather, on should turn away from it, it is said Zuhd means to refrain from this dunyaa (world), without showing off.

Al-Ju’nayd said: Zuhd means to free the heart from always wanting.

Imaam Ahmad said: Zuhd is not to have too many expectations.

Sulaymaan Ad-Daa’raani said: Zuhd means to leave those things which distract you from Allaah the exalted and high.

Ibn Mubaarak said: It (meaning Zuhd) is having trust in Allaah, and being content in times of poverty.

Abdulwaahid Ibn Zayd said: Zuhd can be practised by a person, even if he only possesses one dinaar or dirham.

Hassan Al-Basri said: Zuhd is not that you make the permissible (things) impermissible or by wasting ones money. But rather Zuhd is that you acknowledge that what Allaah the exalted has (destined for you) is better then what you have.

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Maadaarij As-Saalikeen by Ibnul Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah

They said salaama…

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

 

When the angels came to Ibraheem (‘alayhi salaam) with glad tidings it is said:

قَالُواْ سَلَـماً قَالَ سَلَـمٌ

 

…They said: salaaman (greetings/peace) and he answered salaamun (greetings/peace)…

[Hud:69]

Concerning Ibraheem (‘alayhi salaam)’s response, the scholars said ‘salaamun’ is better than what the angels had greeted with him, this is because the latter (meaning salaamun) alludes to affirmation and eternity.

A good ending

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

The state in which an individual dies in can very much reflect whether their ultimate abode (Aakhirah) will be one of eternal bliss or otherwise.

There is a compelling story that I wish to share with you.

When Abu Zuraah Ar-Razi, the renowned scholar (rahimahullaah) was dying, Abu Hatim Ar-Razi and Muhammad Ibn Muslim Ibn Wara, his two students wished to attend to their teacher at his death bed desiring to remind Abu Zuraah of the testimony of faith but they were too shy because he was their teacher who had taught them about the religion.
But they had an idea. So the students pretend to have forgotten a hadeeth hoping their teacher would complete it for them and as a result for their teacher to utter the shahada.

The two students stood beside their teacher as his eyes remained closed.

Ibn Muslim cited the saying: “Abu A’asim An-Nabil narrated that Abdul Hamid Ibn Ja’far said…” and then he stopped, pretending to have forgotten.

So Abu Hatim, the other student carried on saying: “Muhammad Ibn Bashar narrated that Abu A’asim An-Nabil narrated that Abdul Hamid Ibn Ja’far said…”

And likewise Abu Hatim pretended he too had forgotten.
At that moment, Abu Zuraah Ar-Razi who was lifeless opened his eyes and sat up and said: “Abu A’asim An-Nabil narrated that Abdul Hamid Ibn Ja’far said that Salih Ibn Abu A’rib reported that Kathir Ibn Murra had said that Mu’adh Ibn Jabal quoted the prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam) as saying: “He who seals life with the words, there is no deity except Allaah…” Then Abu Zuraah’s soul departed as he was trying to remind his students of a hadeeth.

And so this scholar died with his last moment dedicating to teaching his students as well as saying the shahada. The manners of his students is something that we should all aspire to achieve, their gentleness towards helping their teacher to husnil khaatim ( a good ending) is one that is still told through outt history. May Allaah have mercy upon him (Ar-Razi) and his students, Aameen.

And may Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) grant us a good ending, Aameen!

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‘Ala baab Al-jannah by Mustafa Hosny

Tuhfatul Atfaal [4]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,  

Please do make dua that I am able to finish the whole translation within the following month or so Inshaa’Allaah!

Bismillaah,

 

 

حُكْمُ لامِ ألْ وَلامِ الْفِعْلِ

 

Rule of the laam of ‘al’ and the laam of the verb

 

 

لِـلاَمِ أَلْ حَـالاَنِ قَبْـلَ الأَحْـرُفِ ** أُولاَهُمَـا إِظْهَـارُهَـا فَلْتَـعْـرِفِ

 

The laam of ‘al’ has two conditions (when occurring) before the letters (of the alphabet). The first (condition) of which is idh-haar, so know this.  

 

قَبْلَ ارْبَعٍ مَعْ عَشْـرَةٍ خُـذْ عِلْمَـهُ ** مِنِ إبْـغِ حَجَّـكَ وَخَـفْ عَقِيمَـهُ

 

Before four with ten (i.e fourteen), take the knowledge from: Be desirous of your pilgrimage and fear that it becomes barren [1].

 

ثَانِيهِمَـا إِدْغَامُهَـا فِـي أَرْبَــعِ ** وَعَشْـرَةٍ أَيْضًـا وَرَمْزَهَـا فَـعِ

 The second (of the two conditions) is idghaam in four and ten (i.e fourteen) aswell, so grasp and memorise its combination 

طِبْ ثُمَّ صِلْ رُحْمًا تَفُزْ ضِفْ ذَا نِعَمْ ** دَعْ سُوءَ ظَـنٍّ زُرْ شَرِيفًـا لِلْكَرَمْ

 

Be good, then join family ties and you will be prosperous. Be hospitable to the one who possesses bounties. Shun evil thought and visit the distinguished for generosity [2].

 

 

وَاللاَّمُ الاُولَـى سَمِّهَـا قَمَـرِيَّـهْ ** وَاللاَّمَ الاُخْـرَى سَمِّهَـا شَمْسِيَّـهْ 

 

And the first laam, call it the lunar laam  and the last laam, call it the solar

laam

 

وأظْهِـرَنَّ لاَمَ فِـعْـلٍ مُطْلَـقَـا ** فِي نَحْوِ قُلْ نَعَـمْ وَقُلْنَـا وَالْتَقَـى

 

Observe the clarity of the laam of the verb in gerenal. For example in (the

words), Qul na’am, wa qulnaa and wataqa

 

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[1]

 

 This sentence is composed of 14 letters which the author mentioned which helps with the memorisation of the rules

 

[2]

The 14 letters of idghaam of the laam al-ta’rif is gathered here

Most noble

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh

 

 

 

Ibn Haajar Asqalaani (rahimahullaah) said in Fathul Baari:  We say, the Qur’aan is the most noble of all types of knowledge. So the one who learns it and teaches others; becomes the most noble than the one who teaches other than it [Qur’aan], even though he might teach something which becomes well established for his student.

 

And there is no doubt that learning the Qur’aan and teaching it, is more complete for a persons’ soul and to others