Archive for the ‘Arabic’ Category

Tuhfatul Atfaal Translated

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

Tuhfatul atfaal

Download the file here

By the mercy of Allaah the translation of the classical and renowned tajweed text has been completed. I hope it is of benefit to those who read it.

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A profound substitute

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

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In the arabic language, not a stone is left unturned. The language is so rich that even a concept like tanween has more to it than simply being a nunation attached to nouns. The arabs have divided tanween into four types. One type is known as Tanweenul ‘Iwad and its purpose is to subsititute the tanween for a letter, a word, a sentence or even an attribute!

For example, Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) says:

فَلَوْلَا إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْحُلْقُومَ

Then why do you not (intervene) when (the soul of the dying person) reaches the throat? [1]

And he (exalted and glorified be he) continues to say:

وَأَنتُمْ حِينَئِذٍ تَنظُرُونَ

And you at the moment are looking on [2].

And instead of repeating part of the previous ayah, the tanween attached to 7eena is a substitute for ‘idha balaghatil hulqoom’ so the ayah actually means ‘You at that moment, [when (the soul of the dying person) reaches the throat] you’re looking”

In another ayah Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) says:

وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ

…thunder and lightning…[3]

The tanween on ra’d and barq are omitted for “…Ra’dun qassifun wa barqun khatifun…” (Crashing thunder and flashing lightning).

And in another ayah Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) says:

يَوْمَئِذٍ تُحَدِّثُ أَخْبَارَهَا

That day it will declare its information [4].

And so when this ayah was revealed, the Messenger of Allaah (sallaallaahu ‘alayhi wa salam) said:

فَإِنَّ أَخْبَارَهَا أَنْ تَشْهَدَ عَلَى كُلِّ عَبْدٍ وَأَمَةٍ بِمَا عَمِلَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهَا أَنْ تَقُولَ: عَمِلَ كَذَا وَكَذَا يَوْمَ كَذَا وَكَذَا، فَهَذِهِ أَخْبَارُهَا

Verily, its information is that it will testify against every male and female servant, about what they did upon its surface. It will say that he did such and such on such and such day. So this is its information.” [5]

Subhanallaah, May Allaah grant us understanding of the Qur’aan, ameen.

__________________

[1] Al-Waqi’ah:83

[2] Al-Waqi’ah:84

[3] Al-Baqarah:19

[4] Az-Zalzalah:4

[5] Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Tuhfatul Atfaal [5]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,

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في المِثْلَيْنِ وَالمُتَقَارِبَيْنِ وَالمُتَجَانِسَيْنِ

About mithlayni [1], mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni

إِنْ فِي الصِّفَاتِ وَالمَخَـارِجِ اتَّفَـقْ ** حَرْفَـانِ فَالْمِثْـلاَنِ فِيهِمَـا أَحَـقْ

When two letters agree in sifaat (attribute) and makhaarij (places of articulation) then it is more befitting that they be (called) mithlaan (equivalent)

وَإِنْ يَكُونَـا مَخْـرَجًـا تَقَـارَبَـا ** وَفِـي الصِّفَـاتِ اخْتَلَفَـا يُلَقَّـبَـا

And if two of them are close in makhaarij (places of articulation) and differ in sifaat (attributes) then they are called:

مُتَقَارِبَـيْـنِ أَوْ يَكُونَـا اتَّـفَـقَـا ** فِي مَخْـرَجٍ دُونَ الصِّفَـاتِ حُقِّقَـا

Mutaqaaribayn (adjacent) or the two of them agree in makhaarij (places of articulation) but not in attribute, then they are comfirmed (as being) called:

بِالْمُتَجَانِسَـيْـنِ ثُـمَّ إِنْ سَـكَـنْ ** أَوَّلُ كُــلٍّ فَالصَّغِـيـرَ سَمِّـيَـنْ

Mutajaanisayn (homogenous). Then if the first of each (of the above mentioned groups) is unvowelled then call it minor (idghaam).

أَوْ حُرِّكَ الحَرْفَانِ فِي كُـلٍّ فَقُـلْ ** كُـلٌّ كَبِيـرٌ وافْهَمَـنْـهُ بِالْمُـثُـلْ

Or the two letters are vowelled in each (of the three groups), then say all (of them) are major (idghaam) and understand it with examples.

_____________________________

[1] It is when the same letter comes after each other and it is of three types; Mithlayni sakheer (minor): This is when the first letter is saakin (has sukoon) and the second letter is mutaharrik (has a vowel). Mithlayni kabeer (major): This is when both letters are mutaharrik. Mithlayni mutlaq (absolute): This is when the first letter is mutaharrik and the second letter is saakin.

The mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni also divide into three types like the mithlayni.

 

Tuhfatul Atfaal [4]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,  

Please do make dua that I am able to finish the whole translation within the following month or so Inshaa’Allaah!

Bismillaah,

 

 

حُكْمُ لامِ ألْ وَلامِ الْفِعْلِ

 

Rule of the laam of ‘al’ and the laam of the verb

 

 

لِـلاَمِ أَلْ حَـالاَنِ قَبْـلَ الأَحْـرُفِ ** أُولاَهُمَـا إِظْهَـارُهَـا فَلْتَـعْـرِفِ

 

The laam of ‘al’ has two conditions (when occurring) before the letters (of the alphabet). The first (condition) of which is idh-haar, so know this.  

 

قَبْلَ ارْبَعٍ مَعْ عَشْـرَةٍ خُـذْ عِلْمَـهُ ** مِنِ إبْـغِ حَجَّـكَ وَخَـفْ عَقِيمَـهُ

 

Before four with ten (i.e fourteen), take the knowledge from: Be desirous of your pilgrimage and fear that it becomes barren [1].

 

ثَانِيهِمَـا إِدْغَامُهَـا فِـي أَرْبَــعِ ** وَعَشْـرَةٍ أَيْضًـا وَرَمْزَهَـا فَـعِ

 The second (of the two conditions) is idghaam in four and ten (i.e fourteen) aswell, so grasp and memorise its combination 

طِبْ ثُمَّ صِلْ رُحْمًا تَفُزْ ضِفْ ذَا نِعَمْ ** دَعْ سُوءَ ظَـنٍّ زُرْ شَرِيفًـا لِلْكَرَمْ

 

Be good, then join family ties and you will be prosperous. Be hospitable to the one who possesses bounties. Shun evil thought and visit the distinguished for generosity [2].

 

 

وَاللاَّمُ الاُولَـى سَمِّهَـا قَمَـرِيَّـهْ ** وَاللاَّمَ الاُخْـرَى سَمِّهَـا شَمْسِيَّـهْ 

 

And the first laam, call it the lunar laam  and the last laam, call it the solar

laam

 

وأظْهِـرَنَّ لاَمَ فِـعْـلٍ مُطْلَـقَـا ** فِي نَحْوِ قُلْ نَعَـمْ وَقُلْنَـا وَالْتَقَـى

 

Observe the clarity of the laam of the verb in gerenal. For example in (the

words), Qul na’am, wa qulnaa and wataqa

 

__________________

[1]

 

 This sentence is composed of 14 letters which the author mentioned which helps with the memorisation of the rules

 

[2]

The 14 letters of idghaam of the laam al-ta’rif is gathered here

Tuhfatul Atfaal [3]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuh,

Sorry for the late update, wordpress has not been too kind to me!

The rules of noon and meem mushaddadatayn

وَغُـنَّ مِيـماً ثُـمَّ نُونـاً شُــدِّدَا ** وَسَــمِّ كُـلاً حَـرْفَ غُـنَّةٍ بَـدَا

And apply ghunnah to (the letter) meem, then the noon whereever it has a shadd, and name each (of them) a letter of ghunnah that has appeared.

The rules of meem saakinah

 

 

وَالِميـمُ إِنْ تَسْـكُنْ تَجِى قَبْلَ الْهِجَا ** لاَ أَلــفٍ لَيِّــنَةٍ لِــذِى الْحِـجَا

And when the unvowelled meem appears before (the letters of)  the alphabet, with the exception to the soft alif, for the possesor of intellect.

أَحْـكَامُـهَا ثَـلاَثَـةٌ لِمَـنْ ضَبَـطْ ** إِخْـفَاءٌ ادْغَـامٌ وَإِظْـهَـارٌ فَقَــطْ

Its rules are three, for the one who strives for precision: ikhfaa, idghaam and idh-haar only.

فَـالأَوَّلُ الإِخْـفَـاءُ عِنْـدَ الْبَــاءِ ** وَسَـمِّـهِ الشَّفْــوِىَّ لِلْـقُــرَّاءِ

And the first (rule of meem saakinah) is ikhfaa in the case of baa and name it (this ikhfaa) labial in accordance to the quraa’.

وَالثّـَانـى إِدْغَـامٌ بِمِـثْلِـهَا أَتَـى ** وَسَـمِّ إدغـاماً صَـغـِيراً يَا فَـتَى

And the second (rule) is idghaam with its equivalent (meaning another meem) and name it minor idghaam, O serious student.

وَالثـَّالِـثُ الإِظْـهَارُ فِـى الْبَقِيَّـةْ ** مِـنْ أَحْـرُفٍ وَسَـمِّـهَا شَفْوِيَّـهْ

And the third (rule) is idh-haar in the reminding letters and name it labial.

وَاحْـذَرْ لَدَى وَاوٍ وَفَـا أَنْ تَخْتَـفىِ ** لِـقُـرْبِــهَا وَلاتحادِ فَاعْـرِفِ

Be careful of making ikhfaa in the case of waaw and fa (in particular) due to its nearness and concordance (in place of attribute and articulation), so know this/take heed.

______________

Wabillaahi tawfeeq.

I have been asked if I could kindly put tashkeel (diacritical marks) on the arabic so it is easier for the students, bi’idnillaah I will also do this.

May Allaah accept this from me.

Beyond Darkness

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuh,

 

 

When the story of Yunus (‘alayhi salaam) is narrated to us in the Qur’aan it mentions about how he was in darkness.

 

Allaah (exalted and glorified be he) says:

 

وَذَا النُّونِ إِذ ذَّهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أَن لَّن نَّقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ فَنَادَى فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ أَن لَّا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

And (remember) Jonah, when he went off in anger, and imagined that We shall not punish him (i.e. the calamites which had befallen him)! but he cried through the darkness (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but You (O Allah), Glorified (and Exalted) are You [above all that (evil) they associate with You]. Truly, I have been of the wrong-doers.” [Al-Anbiyaa:87]

 

In this ayah, the plural of dhulma (dhulumaat) is used. So why is darkness in the arabic language a plural? Because the darkness that had engulfed him(‘alayhi salaam) refers to several darkness. The darkness of the night, the darkness of the sea and the darkness of the belly of the fish. It is almost an emphasis on just how dark it is, for indeed if the singular  was used then it would carry a different meaning.

 

May Allaah grant us Ilmu Naafi (beneficial knowledge), Aameen.

 

                                            

Tafseer Ibn Katheer

Where do I start?

As-salamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuh, 

There are so many brothers and sisters who want to persue the path of learning arabic but where to start always seems to be the obstacle. What books shall I use? Which institute is best? Can I teach myself? How long does it take to learn arabic? These questions are so vital yet it seems that there aren’t enough people to answer our questions and satisfy our thirst. There is so much information on arabic language that it has just reached a super overload. Everything is there yet nothing is there. Inshaa’Allaah, with this article I hope to shed some light on the various books you can use to start off your arabic studies. I will state the advantages and disadvantages and I hope by the end of it that you have some idea on what book will suit you. 
I will go through the books in no particular order:

Kitaabul Asaasi

 
 
 
These books consist of the three volumes. The first two volumes have arabic-english dictonary at the back to help you with clarification of any arabic words that you don’t understand or possibly have misunderstood. The first volume focuses on introducing the arabic language to you and your vocabulary is boosted by the numerous coversations. Your writing skills are also given a run for their money due to the amount of exercises you’re required to cover in correlation to the conversation you have studied.

Grammar is introduced in volume one. Nonetheless, there isn’t a major need for you to understand the gammatic state or its essense. Rather all that is required is that you’re able to use the grammar when needed. It is in Vol two that you start doing ‘Iraab and go into the nitty gritty of grammar and how to use arabic dictonary. But it is in Vol three that things start to get spicy, the doors to the gems of arabic are opened and they are yours to enjoy. You look at arabic literature, tafseer, fiqh, history and poetry to mention a few.  

However, there is alot of conversation to go through espically in Vol one and can seem absouletly tedious and pointless to someone who wants to dive into being able to benefit from Islaamic texts. You spend alot of time building on vocabulary and grammar is prosponed for a later stage when the student is deemed to be more capable of grasping it. In addition if you’re persuing the arabic language so that you may understand the Qur’aan and islaamic texts then you may have to wait abit longer. With these books, patience is definately the key. Furthermore, it is geared towards generally being able to speak arabic and not merely about religious matters. Some may consider this a negative aspect but if you want to master arabic then it is a gem worth capturing.

 

 
Madinah books
 
 
 
 
 
 
The madinah books consist of three books. Covering a wide spectrum of grammar with the religion being its base. These books are great for combaining references from the Qur’aan and Sunnah while teaching arabic. In contract to Kitaabul Asaasi, you’re introduced grammar from an early stage. In book three you will notice that special attention is given in quoting Qur’aanic ayaat (pl. ayah) and ahadeeth (pl.hadeeth) to illustrate the rule (s) being discussed in a dialogue form in each lesson.
As these books were designed with English speakers in mind, it is a must-have for pretty much all english speakers who take on the journey to learn arabic. However, these books are never sufficient to get someone to a high level in the arabic language. Although you may know more Islaamic oriented terminologies and have the upper hand over someone who may be in Vol one of Kitaabul Asaasi, it is a brief moment. In the end, your knowledge will be of a lower standard when you finish all three books in comparison to someone who has studied all three volumes of kitaabul asaasi. In addition the systemisation is poor, it moves from easy and hard too fast in my opinion and there is no gradual build up. Also grammar is introduced straight away which can be overwhelming and not necessarily beneficial in the long run.
 
 
Al-‘Arabiyya Bayna Yadayk
 
 
Al-‘Arabiyyah bayna yadayk series comes in three books. The great thing about these books is as though they have tried to deal with the problems of Kitaabul Asaasi and Madinah books (though that was never the purpose of it!). It covers alot of vocabulary and introduces the students to grammar later and gradually rather than pushing them at the deep end before they can swim.
Much like Madinah books it is more Islaamic inclined and fulfills the desire for the student of knowledge to learn the language of the Qur’aan.

However, much like Madinah books, it does not go into much depth and you will find that in majority cases that students who have completed all three books will move onto the third volume of Kitaabul Asaasi to reach a higher competency.

 

The three types of books mentioned above are the most famous and most used around the world in teaching the arabic language. These books have advantages and disadvantages and each institute will have adopted certain books to use for various reasons. Which institute to go to will depend on what books you want to study. Do you want to know sufficient arabic to allow you to know the basic or do you want to master the arabic language?

 

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Ajroomiyyah

The matn of ajroomiyyah is excellent, it goes through grammar in the form of poetry. It teaches the student all that he/she requires in digesting arabic grammar. However anything else is out of the window. Just because you can go through the ‘Iraab of any sentence does not mean it will aid you with reading books. This book is good for someone who knows arabic and wants to drill grammar properly but for the English beginner, it usually does not benefit them much. They tend to be left scared and demoralised because it is ‘too hard’. Having said that, you can study the Ajroomiyyah and still reach a good level but it will require you to learn other texts such as Alfiyyah Ibn Malik, Qadr An-Nada and so forth.

 

Nahw Waadih

You can get this book in 3 small books or in one book that has three ajzaa (pl. Juz). It is great for Nahw. The great thing about this book is the fact that it has summary of each grammar rule and then you have exercises to go through. However, much like Ajroomiyyah, your vocabulary will lack and you will need to study other texts to further your studies. It does not stand alone.

Ajroomiyyah and Nahw Waadih are the skeleton, you need flesh and skin to adorn it with. The skeleton alone can not stand, though beneficial, alone it defeats its benefits.

Ibn Saud Text

I don’t know a great deal about this curriculum. However, brother ubaydullaah shared the following informations:

Regarding the Ibn Saud Texts, The books are separated into 4 levels. If one was to complete all four levels, they would have a strong grasp on all subjects in Arabic. Each level is put into three sections; al-`uloom al-Deeniyyah, al-lughah-al-Arabiyyah and Kutub al-Musaahabah. Also, Each subject has it’s own book. The subjects are as follows:

(Level 1) – Duroos minal-Qur`aanil-Kareem (Tafseer), Kitabus-Suwar (limarhalatil-Istima`), al-qira’a wal-Kitabah, at-Ta`beer, Kurraasatul-Khatt, al-Mu`jam (Dictionary for all the subjects in the level) and daleel al-mu’allim (Book for teachers).

(Level 2) – Duroos minal-Qur`aanil-Kareem (Tafseer), al-Hadeeth ash-Shareef, al-Qira`ah, at-Ta`beer, al-Kitabah, an-Nahw, as-Sarf, Kurraasatul-Khatt, al-Mu`jam (Dictionary for all the subjects in the level) and daleel al-mu’allim (Book for teachers).

(Level 3) – al-Fiqh, at-Tawheed, Duroos minal-Qur`aanil-Kareem (Tafseer), al-Hadeeth ash-Shareef, al-ADAB, al-Qira`ah, at-Ta`beer, al-Kitabah, an-Nahw, as-Sarf, Kurraasatul-Khatt, al-Mu`jam (Dictionary for all the subjects in the level) and daleel al-mu’allim (Book for teachers).

(Level 4) – at-Taareekh al-Islamiy, al-Fiqh, at-Tawheed, Duroos minal-Qur`aanil-Kareem (Tafseer), al-Hadeeth ash-Shareef, al-BALAGHAH wan-NAQD, al-ADAB, al-Qira`ah, at-Ta`beer, al-Kitabah, an-Nahw, as-Sarf, Kurraasatul-Khatt, al-Mu`jam (Dictionary for all the subjects in the level) and daleel al-mu’allim (Book for teachers).

Unfortubately, these books aren’t available for purchase but I heard if you contact the University, they will send it to you, otherwise you can purchase the books from some Maktabaat I know in Cairo or can be downloaded from kalamullaah.

I have stated briefly above about several books, by no means does this mean that these are the only books, as a matter of fact, I’ve only scratched the surface. There are numerous books out there that are speficially designed in teaching the arabic language. This article was merely a taster on the various arabic books that you may wish to study from. I hope this was of benefit and that you can take one step forward in fulfilling your dreams in studying the arabic language! If you have any questions please feel free to ask and if I can help then Inshaa’Allaah I will not hesitate in assisting you.
Wabillaahi tawfeeq.
 

Headstart for Ramadaan

As-salamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakatuh,

How time has flown by so quick, yet another year has slipped through our fingers and we are back to the blessed month of Ramadaan. Only few days left before the month of tranquility and reward knocks at our doors. There is so much I love about Ramadaan but there is one thing that always sends shivers of excitement through my body like a fat child being given a slice of double chocolate gateaux. Its taraweeh! I absolutely adore it! Its hard to put these emotions into words but as they say, a picture reads a thousand words.
 

Look at the beauty! Everyone prostrating at the same time, each muslim a mirror for the other subhanallaah. I could go all day about my obssession with taraweeh but I did not intend for this blog to be a domain for ranting!

With Ramadaan just round the corner we need to equip ourselves and so we shall start with the best. Supplications.

Here are imporant dua for this blessed month.

When beginning the fast (suhuur):

 

وَبِصَوْمِ غَدٍ نَّوَيْتَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ

 I intend to keep the fast tomorrow in the month of Ramadaan. [1]

 And you break the fast (Iftaar) saying:

 

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَ ابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوقُ، وَ ثَبَتَ الأجْرُ إنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ

 

 The thirst has gone and the veins are moistened, and the reward is comfirmed if Allaah wills. [2]

I’m sure during Ramadaan someone will test our patience and try and get us to react back but remember. When someone is rude and you’re on the edge, wishing you could retaliate. Calm yourself and say:

 

اِنَّيْ صَائِمٌ ، اِنِّيْ صَائمٌ

I am fasting, I am fasting. [3]

 And there you go, a headstart for your Ramadaan! Taqaballaahu minna wa minkum!

                                                           

[1] Abu Dawud

[2] Abu dawud 2:306

[3] Fathul baari by Imaam Ibn Hajar Asqalaani 4:1-3, muslim, 2:806