Archive for June, 2009

Tuhfatul Atfaal [5]

As-salaamu ‘alaykum warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh,


في المِثْلَيْنِ وَالمُتَقَارِبَيْنِ وَالمُتَجَانِسَيْنِ

About mithlayni [1], mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni

إِنْ فِي الصِّفَاتِ وَالمَخَـارِجِ اتَّفَـقْ ** حَرْفَـانِ فَالْمِثْـلاَنِ فِيهِمَـا أَحَـقْ

When two letters agree in sifaat (attribute) and makhaarij (places of articulation) then it is more befitting that they be (called) mithlaan (equivalent)

وَإِنْ يَكُونَـا مَخْـرَجًـا تَقَـارَبَـا ** وَفِـي الصِّفَـاتِ اخْتَلَفَـا يُلَقَّـبَـا

And if two of them are close in makhaarij (places of articulation) and differ in sifaat (attributes) then they are called:

مُتَقَارِبَـيْـنِ أَوْ يَكُونَـا اتَّـفَـقَـا ** فِي مَخْـرَجٍ دُونَ الصِّفَـاتِ حُقِّقَـا

Mutaqaaribayn (adjacent) or the two of them agree in makhaarij (places of articulation) but not in attribute, then they are comfirmed (as being) called:

بِالْمُتَجَانِسَـيْـنِ ثُـمَّ إِنْ سَـكَـنْ ** أَوَّلُ كُــلٍّ فَالصَّغِـيـرَ سَمِّـيَـنْ

Mutajaanisayn (homogenous). Then if the first of each (of the above mentioned groups) is unvowelled then call it minor (idghaam).

أَوْ حُرِّكَ الحَرْفَانِ فِي كُـلٍّ فَقُـلْ ** كُـلٌّ كَبِيـرٌ وافْهَمَـنْـهُ بِالْمُـثُـلْ

Or the two letters are vowelled in each (of the three groups), then say all (of them) are major (idghaam) and understand it with examples.


[1] It is when the same letter comes after each other and it is of three types; Mithlayni sakheer (minor): This is when the first letter is saakin (has sukoon) and the second letter is mutaharrik (has a vowel). Mithlayni kabeer (major): This is when both letters are mutaharrik. Mithlayni mutlaq (absolute): This is when the first letter is mutaharrik and the second letter is saakin.

The mutaqaaribayni and mutajaanisayni also divide into three types like the mithlayni.